At the 2022 SNIA Storage Developers Conference, there was a lot of parallel discussion on a new IEEE standard, 2883, on methods for sanitizing logical storage and physical storage, as well as providing specific technology requirements and disposal guidance of recorded data. This is an effort to update the data sanitization standards, formally developed by NIST (NIST SP800-88R1).
Deletion of recorded data is an important consideration when retiring or reusing storage devices and systems and deserves some attention. Greater reuse of older storage devices can extend their useful life, prevent destruction of storage devices, allow valuable components to be salvaged, and thus reduce the demand on the resources needed to manufacture new storage devices. , leading to a more circular economy. Much of the content in this article was adopted from a July 2022 OCP white paper on data sanitization and the IEEE 2883 standard.
Companies that store data in the cloud must ensure that their customer data is secure. It is common for these companies to physically destroy devices that contain data, such as hard drives and solid state drives, despite the use of advanced encryption and security features on these devices that can ensure almost zero risk of data leaks. This physical destruction includes drilling and shredding these devices. Such physical destruction makes it economically infeasible to recover subcomponents, such as rare-earth magnets from hard drives.
Longer use of storage devices and greater recovery of valuable end-of-life components can lead to reduced carbon emissions. An ideal circular economy employs reuse, exchange, repair, refurbishment, remanufacturing and recycling to create a closed-loop system that minimizes the use of new materials and reduces waste creation, pollution and carbon emissions. . Media sanitization on storage devices can safely prevent data access and prevent physical destruction. Disinfection has a specific meaning. It is a process or method of making access to target data on storage media infeasible for a given level of effort.
The IEEE P2883 Standard for Sanitizing Storage details sanitizing methods and techniques for various storage media (HDD, SSD, optical, removable, etc.). Specifies specific interface techniques (SATA, SAS, NVMe). It aligns the industry in terms of modern terminology and techniques for media sanitization and targets all logical and physical locations of data, including user data, legacy data, metadata, over-provisioning, etc. The three basic disinfection methods are illustrated below.
Clear uses logical techniques on user data in all addressable storage locations to protect against simple, non-invasive data retrieval techniques using the same host interface available to the user. Shredding basically turns the storage device into slag. Purge is the most interesting approach to storage device reuse. There are three scavenging methods, which can be used together to decrease the chance of recovering any data, although any method is sufficient to present data recovery using state-of-the-art laboratory data recovery techniques.
These three methods are:
1) Sanitize Purge Crypto Wipe (CE) will change the media encryption key on a device, typically today using AES256, which is not only a secure way to sanitize a device but also happens in seconds
two) Sanitize Purge Overwrite It securely overwrites storage media with various patterns that can be verified later. Overwrite can be used with hard drives that are not CE compliant
3) Sanitize Purge Block Erase can zero out erase blocks on NAND-based SSDs and can be used in conjunction with CE
Note that for a hard drive, the sanitize purge overwrite takes about an hour per terabyte to complete on a modern hard drive. This leaves the hard drive with no recoverable user data.
The IEEE 2883 standard on data sanitization details methods for securely removing data from storage devices, preventing unauthorized access to data. Using this standard enables reuse and recycling of various digital storage devices and can contribute to a circular economy in digital storage devices and systems and lower carbon emissions.